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Keep up the good work! Mauer, J. Myeloid cell-restricted insulin receptor deficiency protects against obesity-induced inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. PLoS Genet. Shi, H. TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Ron, D. Signal integration in the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response.

Boden, G. Increase in endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins and genes in adipose tissue of obese, insulin-resistant individuals. Diabetes 57 , — Eizirik, D. The role for endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetes mellitus. A comprehensive review of ER stress and the UPR in the development of insulin resistance and obesity.

Gregor, M. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is reduced in tissues of obese subjects after weight loss. Ozawa, K. The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Herschkovitz, A. Common inhibitory serine sites phosphorylated by IRS-1 kinases, triggered by insulin and inducers of insulin resistance.

Sengupta, S. Regulation of the mTOR complex 1 pathway by nutrients, growth factors, and stress. Cell 40 , — Shah, O. Ozcan, U. Loss of the tuberous sclerosis complex tumor suppressors triggers the unfolded protein response to regulate insulin signaling and apoptosis. Cell 29 , — Park, S. Stratton, I. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes UKPDS 35 : prospective observational study.

BMJ , — A seminal UK Prospective Diabetes Study study unequivocally demonstrating that improved glycaemic control reduced the incidence of microvascular, and to a lesser extent, macrovascular complications in patients with T2DM. Holman, R. Brownlee, M. The pathobiology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanism. A lucid discussion of the molecular pathways involved in the development of diabetic microvascular complications.

Giacco, F. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Coutinho, M. The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95, individuals followed for Diabetes Care 22 , — Taskinen, M.

New insights into the pathophysiology of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis , — An up-to-date review of the pathogenesis of diabetic dyslipidaemia and its treatment. Isomaa, B. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome.

Adler, A. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes UKPDS 36 : prospective observational study.

Williams, B. Treating hypertension in patients with diabetes: when to start and how low to go? The optimal blood pressure goal in hypertensive patients with T2DM is discussed in light of the controversial results observed in the blood pressure arm of the ACCORD trial.

Lastra, G. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: an update. International Expert Committee. International Expert Committee report on the role of the A1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes.

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Is the current definition for diabetes relevant to mortality risk from all causes and cardiovascular and noncardiovascular diseases? Diabetes Care 26 , — Engelgau, M. Screening for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 23 , — LeFevre, M. Behavioral counseling to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: U. The diabetes risk score: a practical tool to predict type 2 diabetes risk. Tabaei, B. A multivariate logistic regression equation to screen for diabetes: development and validation.

Diabetes Care 25 , — World Health Organization. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus WHO, Pan, X.

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Li, G. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a year follow-up study. Sustained reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: follow-up of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

Pathophysiologic approach to therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 36 , S—S A rational approach to the treatment of T2DM is presented based on its pathophysiology.

Raz, I. Nakagami, T. A year follow-up study. Lim, E. Reversal of type 2 diabetes: normalisation of beta cell function in association with decreased pancreas and liver triacylglycerol. Jazet, I. Diabetologia 51 , — Initial combination therapy with metformin, pioglitazone and exenatide is more effective than sequential add-on therapy in subjects with new-onset diabetes. This prospective randomized trial using a combination of antidiabetic agents proven to reverse known pathophysiological abnormalities in T2DM demonstrated superiority of glycaemic control compared with the stepped approach of metformin followed by a sulfonylurea and then basal insulin recommended by most national diabetes organizations.

Harrison, L. Gram, J. Pharmacological treatment of the pathogenetic defects in type 2 diabetes: the randomized multicenter South Danish Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 34 , 27—33 Combination of empagliflozin and linagliptin as second-line therapy in subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin.

Diabetes Care 38 , — Weng, J. Hu, Y. One of several recent studies demonstrating that intensive insulin therapy to correct the decompensated metabolic state in newly diagnosed patients with T2DM can lead to durable glycaemic control without or with a marked reduction in antidiabetic medications. Xiang, A. Astrup, A. Safety, tolerability and sustained weight loss over 2 years with the once-daily human GLP-1 analog, liraglutide. Metabolic effects of metformin on glucose and lactate metabolism in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Turner, R. Glycemic control with diet, sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: progressive requirement for multiple therapies UKPDS A landmark UK Prospective Diabetes Study documenting the need for progressive add-on therapies in newly diagnosed patients with T2DM receiving initial therapy with metformin or with a sulfonylurea. Brown, J. Secondary failure of metformin monotherapy in clinical practice.

Glycemic durability of rosiglitazone, metformin, or glyburide monotherapy. A 5-year ADOPT study demonstrating long-term durable HbA1c reduction with rosiglitazone compared with a progressive rise in HbA1c observed with metformin and sulfonylureas, and a more rapid deterioration of glycaemic control with sulfonylureas compared with metformin. Madiraju, A.

Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. The target of metformin in type 2 diabetes. Maedler, K. Roumie, C. Comparative effectiveness of sulfonylurea and metformin monotherapy on cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Simpson, S. Dose—response relation between sulfonylurea drugs and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study.

CMAJ , — Mortality risk among sulfonylureas: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. A review of the published literature that examines the relationship between sulfonylurea therapy and the development of adverse cardiovascular events. Eldor, R. In vivo actions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion.

An exhaustive review of the mechanism of action, efficacy and side-effect profile of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic medications. Miyazaki, Y. Rosiglitazone improves downstream insulin receptor signaling in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes 52 , — Gastaldelli, A. Diabetes 60 , — Dormandy, J. A large prospective study PROactive demonstrating that pioglitazone significantly reduced the second principal end point of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death; the primary end point did not reach statistical significance because of the inclusion of peripheral arterial disease and leg revascularization, which is known to be refractory to medical intervention, including statin therapy.

Aronoff, S. Pioglitazone hydrochloride monotherapy improves glycemic control in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a 6-month randomized placebo-controlled dose-response study. The Pioglitazone Study Group.

Erdmann, E. Observational follow-up of the PROactive study: a 6-year update. Takeda [online] , Levin, D. Pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk: a multipopulation pooled, cumulative exposure analysis.

Diabetologia 58 , — Kjems, L. Diabetologia 45 , — Aroda, V. Deacon, C. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a comparative review.

Balas, B. The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor vildagliptin suppresses endogenous glucose production and enhances islet function after single-dose administration in type 2 diabetic patients. Drucker, D. Incretin action in the pancreas: potential promise, possible perils, and pathological pitfalls.

A comprehensive review of the effect of incretin hormones on pancreatic hormone secretion and pathology by one of the world’s leading authorities. White, W. Alogliptin after acute coronary syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. Scirica, B. Saxagliptin and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cervera, A. Mechanism of action of exenatide to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.

Bunck, M. Klonoff, D. Exenatide effects on diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes treated for at least 3 years. Schwartz, S. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the cardiometabolic syndrome: impact of incretin-based therapies.

Eng, C. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin combination treatment for the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Egan, A. Van de Laar, F. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst. Esposito, K. Richter, B. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 DPP-4 inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Role of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 SGLT 2 inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. An excellent review of the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of the recently approved SGLT2 inhibitor class of antidiabetic medications. Wright, E. Biology of human sodium glucose transporters. Merovci, A.

Dapagliflozin improves muscle insulin sensitivity but enhances endogenous glucose production. Metabolic response to sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition in type 2 diabetic patients.

Cherney, D. Renal hemodynamic effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Circulation , — Three-year efficacy of complex insulin regimens in type 2 diabetes. A comparison of the efficacy and side-effect profile of commonly used complex insulin regimens for the treatment of patients with T2DM.

Gough, S. Efficacy and safety of a fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide IDegLira compared with its components given alone: results of a phase 3, open-label, randomised, week, treat-to-target trial in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes.

Wilding, J. Long-term efficacy of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving high doses of insulin: a randomized trial. Anderson, M. Optimal management of type 2 diabetes in patients with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Schopman, J.

The incidence of mild and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sulfonylureas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Desouza, C. Association of hypoglycemia and cardiac ischemia: a study based on continuous monitoring. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. The ORIGIN trial demonstrated that physiological insulin replacement doses 30—40 units per day in newly diagnosed patients with T2DM could control HbA1c without an increased risk of cardiovascular events; however, the risk of hypoglycaemia was significantly increased, and the study did not examine the effect of higher doses of insulin, which are usually required to normalize glycaemia in more long-standing diabetes, on cardiovascular risk or other potential side effects of insulin therapy.

Cushman, W. Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. James, P. Emdin, C. JAMA Intern. Testa, M. Health economic benefits and quality of life during improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial.

This was the first randomized trial to demonstrate that better glucose control improves QOL, cognitive function and general perceived health, and reduces symptom distress and absenteeism from work.

Assesment of quality-of-life outcomes. Valuing quality of life and improvements in glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 21 , C44—C52 Bode, B. Patient-reported outcomes following treatment with the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide or glimepiride in monotherapy: results from a randomized controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Comparative effectiveness of basal-bolus versus premix analog insulin on glycemic variability and patient-centered outcomes during insulin intensification in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. This randomized trial demonstrated that patient satisfaction with treatment was more positively affected by improved QOL, reduced glucose variability and better glycaemic control with a basal-bolus regimen than negatively affected by the burden of additional injections.

Cotter, A. Internet interventions to support lifestyle modification for diabetes management: a systematic review of the evidence. Diabetes Complications 28 , — Rose, M. Novel agents for T2DM.

Diabetes Spectr. This article presents a more detailed review of novel antidiabetic agents that currently are being investigated in animals and humans for the treatment of T2DM. Wong, A. AMP-activated protein kinase pathway: a potential therapeutic target in cardiometabolic disease.

Agrawal, N. Targeting inflammation in diabetes: newer therapeutic options. World J. Diabetes 5 , — Poy, M. Burant, C. TAK versus placebo or glimepiride in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Assmann, A. Growth factor control of pancreatic islet regeneration and function. Diabetes 10 , 14—32 Vasavada, R. Wiederkehr, A. Deficiency of APPL1 in mice impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through inhibition of pancreatic beta cell mitochondrial function.

Sivitz, W. Mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes: from molecular mechanisms to functional significance and therapeutic opportunities. Redox Signal. Li, N. Aquilano, K. Matschinsky, F. Glucokinase activators for diabetes therapy: May status report. Engel, S. Glycemic and lipid effects of the short-acting glucagon receptor antagonist MK in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Abstr. Gumbiner, B. Kumashiro, N. Targeting pyruvate carboxylase reduces gluconeogenesis and adiposity and improves insulin resistance. Stark, R. Harlan, D. Current advances and travails in islet transplantation. Composition and function of macroencapsulated human embryonic stem cell-derived implants: comparison with clinical human islet cell grafts.

Pagliuca, F. Blum, B. Pickup, J. Peyser, T. The artificial pancreas: current status and future prospects in the management of diabetes. NY Acad. This article presents an up-to-to-date status report on progress with the artificial pancreas closed-loop system. Afrezza inhaled insulin: the fastest-acting FDA-approved insulin on the market has favorable properties. Diabetes Sci. Glucose-reducing effect of the ORMD oral insulin preparation in patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes: a pilot study.

Dissociation between metformin plasma exposure and its glucose-lowering effect: a novel gut-mediated mechanism of action.

Diabetes 62 , a DePaoli, A. Colca, J. Insulin sensitizers in new insights for the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat metabolic diseases. Expert Opin. Drugs 23 , 1—7 Suh, J. Endocrinization of FGF1 produces a neomorphic and potent insulin sensitizer. Gaich, G. Jeoung, N. Role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 in regulation of blood glucose levels. Korean Diabetes J. Povel, C. Metabolic syndrome model definitions predicting type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Pacini, G. Birch, A. DGAT1 inhibitors as anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agents. Drug Discov. Liu, L. Upregulation of myocellular DGAT1 augments triglyceride synthesis in skeletal muscle and protects against fat-induced insulin resistance.

Harrima, G. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition by NDI inhibits fatty acid synthesis stimulates fatty acid oxidative, reduces body weight, improvise insulin sensitivity, and modulates dyslipidemia in rats. Tao, H. Niclosamide ethanolamine-induced mild mitochondrial uncoupling improves diabetic symptoms in mice. Reversal of hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance by a liver-targeted mitochondrial uncoupler. Carlsson, L. Bariatric surgery and prevention of type 2 diabetes in Swedish obese subjects.

The effectiveness and safety of bariatric surgery in the treatment of obesity and T2DM is reviewed in this longest ongoing study on surgical intervention. Neuschwander-Tetri, B. Farnesoid X nuclear receptor ligand obeticholic acid for non-cirrhotic, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis FLINT : a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

Out, C. Bile acid sequestrants: more than simple resins. Cellitti, S. Keystone Symp. Thareja, S. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors: a molecular level legitimate approach for the management of diabetes mellitus. Chakraborty, C. Influence of miRNA in insulin signaling pathway and insulin resistance: micro-molecules with a major role in type-2 diabetes.

Wiley Interdiscip. RNA 5 , — Tilg, H. Microbiota and diabetes: an evolving relationship. Gut 63 , — Patel, S. The duodenal—jejunal bypass sleeve EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner for weight loss and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Bhatt, M. C-peptide replacement therapy as an emerging strategy for preventing diabetic vasculopathy. Bhat, M. The kallikrein—kinin system in diabetic retinopathy. Drug Res. PubMed Google Scholar. Hajhosseiny, R. Have we reached the limits for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy? Drugs 23 , — Williams, M. Effects of pyridoxamine in combined phase 2 studies of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy.

De Zeeuw, D. The endothelin antagonist atrasentan lowers residual albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Boussageon, R. Effect of intensive glucose lowering treatment on all cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and microvascular events in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ , d Colditz, G. Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women.

Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 17 , — Download references. Sprung for editorial assistance. Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Introduction R. Correspondence to Ralph A. The authors declare the following potential COI: 1 R. Reprints and Permissions. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Dis Primers 1, Download citation.

Published : 23 July Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Bulletin of the National Research Centre Advanced search. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature.

Subjects Diabetes Diabetes complications Type 2 diabetes. Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Access through your institution. Buy or subscribe. Relevant articles Open Access articles citing this article.

Protective and therapeutic effectiveness of taurine supplementation plus low calorie diet on metabolic parameters and endothelial markers in patients with diabetes mellitus: a randomized, clinical trial Jalal Moludi , Shaimaa A. Olugbogi , Damilola S. Bodun … Olaposi I. Change institution. Buy article Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

Figure 4: Insulin secretion in response to glucose. Figure 6: Mechanisms of insulin resistance. Figure 7: Illustration of the four major concepts in patient-reported outcomes.

Figure 8: Potential therapeutic targets in T2DM management. References DeFronzo, R. Article Google Scholar Tuomilehto, J. Google Scholar Pozzilli, P. Article Google Scholar Kleinridders, A. Article Google Scholar Engelgau, M.



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